We are working our way through figuring out how to derive an Automation Framework that works best for a certain testing project and also defining certain frameworks that already exist.
The example that we were using in the previous QTP framework article was creating a new Gmail account.
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To start with, we coded the creating a new account scenario just by record and playback in a linear fashion. Seeing how much it lacked in modularity, readability, and reusability, we broke it down into functions that would be referenced as keywords moving forward.
We did achieve modularity, readability, and reusability through this method but we needed to make the program even more robust so that it can take different sets of values without having to modify the script itself.
That is exactly what we are going to achieve by data driving the tests.
Data-Driven Automation Framework Using QTP
Creating multiple Google user accounts is a task that we will try to accomplish using this framework.
In the earlier example, we hardcoded the first name, last name, user id details, etc. into our code while trying to create an account. We will have to separate the code from the data if we have to achieve the data driving aspect for this script.
The data should come from a source that is not the program itself.
Typically the Data input can be anything:
- MS Excel files
- Text files
- XML files….etc.
Excel files are the ones that get used most often. The very fact that each action in QTP comes integrated with a datasheet of its own explains why that’s so.
You can use one or more data sources for a single script. The excel sheet that comes with the action can be used or you can use an external excel sheet too. Basically, a data sheet can be any relevant external file.
Here is the code that we need to data drive:
Browser("Gmail: Email from Google").Page("GoogleAccounts").WebEdit("FirstName").Set "swati" Browser("Gmail: Email from Google").Page("Google Accounts").WebEdit("LastName").Set "s" Browser("Gmail: Email from Google").Page("Google Accounts").WebEdit("GmailAddress").Set "test"
All the data right now is hardcoded. Let us now see how we can take these values from the datasheet.
Go to the expert view for the statement in QTP and click on the value column for a step.
The following window opens up:
Select the parameter option, choose a name for the parameter (this will be the column name in the datasheet), and choose whether you are going to use the global sheet or local sheet (global sheet is available for all the actions in a test, but the local sheet is specific to the current action).
For the “Name” field on the screen, QTP provides a default value. The user has the option to keep it the same or change it.
Upon clicking OK, a new column gets created in the data table.
This is how the datasheet that contains 3 sets of the first name, last name, and account id looks like:
Once parameterized, the code looks as shown below:
Browser("Gmail: Email from Google").Page("Google Accounts").WebEdit("FirstName").Set DataTable("G_First_Name", dtGlobalSheet) Browser("Gmail: Email from Google").Page("Google Accounts").WebEdit("LastName").Set DataTable("G_Last_Name", dtGlobalSheet) Browser("Gmail: Email from Google").Page("Google Accounts").WebEdit("GmailAddress").Set DataTable("gmail_address", dtGlobalSheet)
If we have to create these 3 user IDs with the data in the sheet, we need to have 3 iterations. Iteration is nothing but a test run.
Once the data is set up, we will have to instruct QTP on how many times this code needs to run, or how many iterations.
Here’s how we do it: Go to File -> Settings and Run
In the above screen, set the iteration properties as required.
Alternately, you can instruct QTP about the iterations programmatically. As always, this allows more control as well as programming skills. So it is really up to the comfort level of the tester to choose either of these methods.
The components of the data-driven framework are:
- Test script
- Data files
- Shared Functional library (if it exists or could be a linear program).
- Object repository (Again, this component will not exist if descriptive programming was used to create objects).
The test results will show a “Passed’ or ‘Failed’ status for each test run.
Apart from the data table that comes by default, we can use any external excel file as an input sheet.
In the above example, you used keywords (names of the functions that the user has created) and have data-driven the test to make sure that different users are created at the same time. This is nothing but a hybrid framework.
The combination of any two or more frameworks that we have discussed so far is a hybrid framework. In my experience, no framework works effectively for a certain project. The hybrid framework is what gets used most often.
Few important points about frameworks:
- The framework is just a solution that worked best in a certain situation but should not be construed as a set of rules to be definitely followed. It should be seen more like guidelines.
- There might be many other frameworks in use, we have only listed and explained the common ones.
- Nomenclature – Different people address their frameworks with different names. So if the names are slightly different from one application to another, then it is normal.
- Most frameworks can be used in conjunction with one another when any one of them cannot provide an all-around solution to your testing goals.
For the sake of easy understanding, we have really simplified the concepts of the framework here.
If you have any framework-related issues that you are facing, but are not covered in these articles, then do let us know. We will most definitely try to answer your questions. Feel free to post your questions.