A Deep Dive Into End to End Testing: E2E Testing Framework and Samples
End-to-end testing is a process used in the evaluation of software, measuring the functionality of an application from beginning to end. The purpose of end-to-end testing is to simulate real user experiences, ensuring the tested system and its elements operate correctly with regards to integration and data accuracy.
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Nobody likes to be remembered for their errors or oversights. This sentiment is shared by testers as well. When tasked with testing a certain application, their practical and technical testing expertise comes under the spotlight. That said, it is essential to conduct “End to End testing” to guarantee comprehensive testing.
Throughout this guide, we will delve into the principle of End to End Testing, its necessity, testing frameworks, popular tools, and the process of developing specific test cases for end-to-end testing. We will also draw attention to system testing and compare it with end-to-end testing.
You may also like: => Live Project-Based End to End Training – Complimentary Online QA Training.
Topics To Be Covered:
What is End to End Testing?
End-to-end testing is a set procedure in software testing that assesses the software application’s functionality from start to finish. The aim of this testing is to mimic real user experiences and check the system being tested, including its elements, for integration and data accuracy.
This type of testing occurs under real-world circumstances, including involvement with hardware, networks, databases, and other software applications.
The primary reason to conduct end-to-end testing is to detect any interdependencies in an application and verify precise communication between different system components. Usually, this testing is carried out after functional and system testing has been performed on the application.
Let’s use Gmail as an example:
The end-to-end validation of a Gmail account encompasses the following steps:
- Opening the Gmail login page utilizing the URL.
- Signing into the Gmail account utilizing valid credentials.
- Accessing the inbox and viewing both read and unread emails.
- Creating a new email, responding to or sending an email.
- Opening the sent items and verifying emails.
- Checking emails in the junk folder.
- Logging out of the Gmail application by selecting “logout”.
End-To-End Testing Tools
#1) Avo Assure
Avo Assure is a scriptless solution for automating tests, which simplifies end-to-end testing of company procedures. It facilitates the testing of web, windows, and mobile platforms (both Android and iOS), non-UI elements (web services, batch tasks), ERPs, Mainframe systems, and associated emulators.
Key features of Avo Assure:
- End-to-end automation of tests through a no-code solution.
- Creation of test plans and design of test cases using the Mindmaps feature.
- Testing for accessibility based on WCAG standards, Section 508, and ARIA.
- Integration with various SDLC and continuous integration tools.
- Scheduling of test execution during non-business hours.
- Running test cases in a single VM or parallelly with the Smart Scheduling and Execution feature.
- Generation of reports in the form of screenshots and videos of the execution process.
- Reusing pre-built keywords and SAP-specific keywords for faster testing.
- Certified for integration with SAP S4/HANA and SAP NetWeaver.
TestCraft is an AI-driven test automation platform that uses visual modeling for quicker test creation and launch. It empowers testers to develop fully automated test scenarios without writing any code, leading to faster bug detection, frequent updates, and improved product quality.
How Does an End-To-End Test Function?
To develop a comprehensive understanding, let’s explore how end-to-end testing functions.
Let’s take the finance industry as an example. When a securities account holder purchases shares, a certain percentage of the transaction amount is paid to the broker. Similarly, when the shareholder sells the shares, another percentage of the transaction amount is paid to the broker – irrespective of whether it resulted in a profit or loss. Risk management is involved in reflecting and managing these transactions in the accounts.
In this situation, we can see the end-to-end test involves multiple transactions on different levels. It tests various systems, which can be complex to validate.
E2E Testing Methods
#1) Horizontal Test:
This method is commonly used and involves testing across multiple applications. This can be done easily within a single Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) application. For instance, consider a web-based online ordering system that includes account management, inventory management, and shipping details.
#2) Vertical Test:
This method verifies all transactions within an application from top to bottom. Each layer of the application is tested one after the other, sequentially. For example, consider a web-based application that communicates with web servers using HTML codes. An API is required to create SQL codes against the database. These complex computing scenarios need thorough validation and specialized testing, which makes this method more challenging.
This testing involves both white box testing and black box testing. Depending on the software in development, these types of testing are used at various levels as needed. End-to-end testing covers both functional and architectural aspects of software or programs.
Testers prefer end-to-end verification as it allows them to write test cases from the user’s perspective and validate scenarios that simulate real-world usage. This prevents missing out on bugs and ensures the test cases validate real-world scenarios, providing testers with a sense of accomplishment.
While designing test cases for end-to-end testing, consider the following guidelines:
- Designing test cases from the end user’s perspective.
- Concentrate on testing existing system features.
- Create multiple test cases for various scenarios.
- Design separate test cases to cover multiple system scenarios.
Similar to executing any other test case, end-to-end testing counts test cases as “Pass” when the expected output is obtained. If the system does not produce the desired output, retesting of the test case is required to pinpoint the areas of failure.
Why Do We Carry Out E2E Testing?
In the current scenario, as depicted in the illustration above, modern software systems consist of interconnected subsystems, which increases their complexity. These subsystems can either be within or from different organizations. They can be similar or different from the current system. Any malfunction or fault within a subsystem can negatively affect the entire software system, potentially leading to a system crash.
End-to-end testing helps reduce these risks and provides the following benefits:
- Guaranteeing accurate system workflow and carrying out system flow validation.
- Expanding test coverage to include all components involved in the software system.
- Identifying troubles within subsystems to enhance the total productivity of the software system.
The activities involved in the end-to-end process include:
- Gaining a comprehensive understanding of the requirements for conducting this testing.
- Establishing appropriate test environments.
- Understanding software and hardware requirements.
- Outlining all subsystems and the core software system.
- Defining the duties and roles of all systems and subsystems involved.
- Utilizing appropriate testing methods and adhering to industry standards.
- Designing test cases and tracing requirements.
- Recording or saving input and output data for each system.
E2E Testing Design Framework
Let’s examine the three categories within the E2E testing design framework:
#1) User Functions: This category involves the following actions:
- List software systems’ features and their interconnected subsystems.
- Monitor the performed actions and the input and output data for each function.
- Identify any relationships between the various user functions.
- Establish whether the user functions are independent or can be reused.
#2) Conditions: This category involves building conditions based on user functions:
- Create a set of conditions for each user function.
- Consider timing, data conditions, and other factors that affect the user function as parameters.
#3) Test Cases: This category involves building test cases:
- Create one or more test cases for each scenario to test user functions’ functionality.
- List each condition as a separate test case.
Let’s now take a look at the metrics and activities involved in end-to-end testing:
- Test Case Preparation Status: This metric displays the progress of the planned test case preparation using a graph.
- Test Progress Weekly Tracking: This metric keeps track of the execution progress of test cases on a weekly basis, indicating the pass, fail, executed, not executed, invalid, and other cases’ percentage.
- Defects Detailed Report and Status: This metric delivers a daily status report on test case execution and spots and logs defects based on their severity. In addition, it calculates the percentage of open and closed defects on a weekly basis. The status of the defect is tracked based on their severity and priority.
- Test Environment: This metric keeps track of the allocated and utilized time duration of the test environment during the testing process.
We have covered several aspects of end-to-end testing. Now, let’s differentiate between “System Testing” and “End-to-End testing”. But first, let’s briefly comprehend system testing so we can better distinguish between these two forms of software testing.
System testing consists of a series of tests intended to evaluate the entire system in its entirety. It focuses on the software system’s external functioning from the consumer’s perspective, considering real-world scenarios.
System testing involves:
- Testing a fully integrated application, including the main system.
- Examining the interaction between components and within the system.
- Verifying whether the desired output is provided based on the given input.
- Evaluating the user’s experience while using different aspects of the application.
Now, let us look at the differences between “System Testing” and “End-to-End testing”.
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