In the preceding Selenium guides, we thoroughly delved into frequently employed and highly favored WebDriver commands, the management of web elements such as Web Tables and Frames, and coping with exceptions in Selenium scripts.
We clarified each command with code snippets and instances to offer you a better grasp of how to successfully use them in corresponding situations. Among the commands expounded upon in the previous guide, some are of particular significance.
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As we advance in the Selenium series, we will now shift our attention towards devising Automation Frameworks in the next several guides. We will delve into various facets of Automation frameworks, encompassing different types, their merits, and the essential elements that constitute a framework.
What This Guide Will Cover:
- What is a Framework?
- Test Automation Framework
- Varieties of Test Automation Framework
- #1) Module Based Testing Framework
- #2) Library Architecture Testing Framework
- #3) Data Driven Testing Framework
- #4) Keyword Driven Testing Framework
- #5) Hybrid Testing Framework
- #6) Behavior Driven Development Framework
What Constitutes a Framework?
A framework is a blend of protocols, rules, standards, and guidelines that can be collectively adopted or followed to optimally utilize the scaffolding offered by the Framework.
Let’s consider a real-life scenario.
We frequently utilize elevators. Elevators come with guidelines that we should adhere to maximize their utility and lifespan.
Some prevalent guidelines encompass:
- Ensuring not to exceed the maximum capacity.
- Using the emergency alarm in case of a problem.
- Allowing occupants to exit before entering.
- Avoiding elevator use during fire or other emergencies.
- Refraining from jumping or playing inside the elevator.
- Avoiding smoking inside the elevator.
- Seeking help if the door does not open or if the elevator malfunctions.
These guidelines render the system more beneficial, user-friendly, scalable, and trouble-free for users.
Now, let’s turn our attention to “Test Automation Frameworks.”
Test Automation Framework
A “Test Automation Framework” is a structure that provides an execution environment for automation test scripts. The framework offers various advantages that aid in formulating, executing, and reporting automation test scripts effectively. It resembles a system expressly devised to automate our tests.
In simpler terms, a framework is a combination of guidelines, coding standards, concepts, processes, practices, project hierarchies, modularity, reporting mechanisms, and test data injections to support automation testing. By adhering to these guidelines, developers can capitalize on various productive results while automating applications.
The benefits can come in the form of ease of scripting, scalability, modularity, understandability, process definition, reusability, cost-effectiveness, and ease of maintenance. Developers are suggested to employ one or more Test Automation Frameworks to enjoy these benefits.
Additionally, a unified and standard Test Automation Framework proves crucial when multiple developers are working on different modules of the same application, to prevent each developer from implementing their own approach to automation.
Note: A testing framework is always independent of the application, implying that it can be used with any application irrespective of its complexities (technology stack, architecture, etc.) under test. The framework should be scalable and maintainable.
Advantages of a Test Automation Framework:
- Code reusability
- Comprehensive test coverage
- Rejuvenation scenarios
- Economical maintenance
- Minimal manual intervention
- Simplified reporting
Varieties of Test Automation Framework
Now that we have a basic understanding of an Automation Framework, let’s delve into the diverse types of Test Automation Frameworks that are available in the market. We will also dissect their positives and negatives and offer suggestions for their usage.
There are several Automation Frameworks available today, varying from each other based on their support for different automation conditions such as reusability and simplicity of maintenance.
Let’s touch upon the most widely used Test Automation Frameworks:
- Module Based Testing Framework
- Library Architecture Testing Framework
- Data Driven Testing Framework
- Keyword Driven Testing Framework
- Hybrid Testing Framework
- Behavior Driven Development Framework
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Now, let’s dissect each of them in depth.
Nonetheless, it’s pertinent to note that users can always create and design their own frameworks that best fulfill their project requirements.
#1) Module Based Testing Framework
The Module Based Testing Framework is grounded in the abstraction concept, a principle in object-oriented programming. The framework partitions the entire “Application Under Test” into logical and standalone modules. Each module has its own distinct test script, and when these test scripts are amalgamated, they form a larger test script representing a multitude of modules.
These modules are isolated by an abstraction layer in a manner that changes made to one segment of the application don’t affect other modules.
- This framework achieves a high degree of modularization, making upkeep simpler and cost-effective.
- The framework offers high scalability.
- If alterations are made in one segment of the application, only the test script representing that segment needs to be updated, leaving the other components unaffected.
- Test data is incorporated in the test scripts for each module, so any alteration in test data necessitates changes in the test scripts.
#2) Library Architecture Testing Framework
The Library Architecture Testing Framework extends the Module Based Testing Framework with supplementary benefits. Rather than partitioning the application under test into test scripts, we divide it into functions that can be shared and employed by different segments of the application. These mutual functions are stored in a library, which can be called from test scripts as needed.
The main notion behind this framework is to identify and assemble common steps into functions in a library, which can then be called from test scripts.
Example: The login steps can be merged into one function and stored in a library. All test scripts that necessitate login can then call that function instead of duplicating the code.
- Like the Module Based Framework, this framework enhances high modularization, making maintenance and scalability straightforward.
- The framework fosters reusability by creating mutual functions that can be employed by multiple test scripts.
- Similar to the Module Based Framework, the test data is retained in the test scripts, so any alteration in the test data necessitates changes in the scripts.
- The introduction of libraries can exacerbate the framework complexity.
#3) Data Driven Testing Framework
Sometimes, it’s necessary to test the same functionality with different sets of input data. Storing the test data